Friday, August 24, 2018

Genitive Phrases in the New Testament
And the Heresy of the Granville Sharp Rule


Each New Testament quotation below is a word-by-word English translation of the Greek text in the Critical Text (Nestle-Aand-26) Greek New Testament. 

Each hyphenated phrase in each New Testament quotation below is an English translation of a single Greek word. 

The words in [brackets] in any quotation below are added by me for clarification. 

A genitive phrase consists of (1) a modified noun in any grammatical case and (2) a modifying noun or nouns in the genitive case.

The way that a genitive phrase functions is plainly demonstrated in Matthew 24:3, 27:56 and 28:19, Acts 4:13, Galatians 1:4 and Ephesians 2:20.

Matthew 24:3 … the sign OF-THE your coming and completion of-the age.

Matthew 27:56 … the OF-THE James and Joseph mother [the mother OF THE James and Joseph] …

Matthew 28:19 … the name OF-THE Father and OF-THE Son and OF-THE Holy Spirit.

Acts 4:13 … the OF-THE Peter boldness and of-John [the boldness OF THE Peter and John] …

Galatians 1:4 … the will OF-THE God and Father of-us.

Ephesians 2:20 … the foundation OF-THE apostles and prophets … 

As shown above, the number of genitive articles (OF-THE) through which the modifying genitive nouns in the genitive phrase modify the modified noun in the genitive phrase determines the number of things or persons being referenced by the modified noun. 

As shown above, the context determines the number of persons or things being referenced by the modifying genitive nouns in the genitive phrase, regardless of whether the modifying genitive nouns are common nouns or proper names, or whether they refer to persons or to things, or whether they are singular or plural. 

The one genitive article (the sign OF-THE your coming and completion of-the age) in Matthew 24:3 does NOT mean that the coming and completion are one (the same) thing. 

To the contrary, the one genitive article (OF-THE) means that the sign is one thing (one sign). It means that the coming and completion (two things, as determined by the context) have one (the same) sign (the sign OF THE coming and completion). 

Two genitive articles (the sign OF-THE your coming and OF-THE completion of-the age) would mean that the coming and the completion (two things, as determined by the context) had two different signs (the sign OF THE coming and the sign OF THE completion). 

The one genitive article (the OF-THE James and Joseph mother [the mother OF THE James and Joseph[) in Matthew 27:56 does NOT mean that James and Joseph are one (the same) person. 

To the contrary, the one genitive article (OF-THE) means that the mother is one person (one mother). It means that James and Joseph (two persons, as determined by the context) have one (the same) mother (the mother OF THE James and Joseph). 

Two genitive articles (the OF-THE James and OF-THE Joseph mother [the mother OF THE James and OF THE Joseph]) would mean that James and Joseph (two persons, as determined by the context) had two different mothers (the mother OF THE James and the mother OF THE Joseph). 

The three genitive articles (the name OF-THE Father and OF-THE Son and OF-THE Holy Spirit) in Matthew 28:19 do NOT mean that Father and Son and Spirit are three different persons. 

To the contrary, the three genitive articles (OF-THE, OF-THE, OF-THE) mean that the name is three things (three names). They mean that that Father and Son and Spirit (three persons, as determined by the context) have three different names (the name OF THE Father and the name OF THE Son and the name OF THE Spirit). 

One genitive article (the name OF-THE Father and Son and Holy Spirit) would mean that Father and Son and Spirit (three persons, as determined by the context) had one (the same) name (the name OF THE Father and Son and Spirit).

The one genitive article (the OF-THE Peter boldness and of-John [the boldness OF THE Peter and John]) in Acts 4:13 does NOT mean that Peter and John are one (the same) person. 

To the contrary, the one genitive article (OF-THE) means that the boldness is one thing (one boldness). It means that Peter and John (two persons, as determined by the context) have one (the same) boldness (the boldness OF THE Peter and John).

Two genitive articles (the OF-THE Peter boldness and OF-THE John [the boldness OF THE Peter and OF THE John]) would mean that Peter and John (two persons, as determined by the context) had two different boldnesses (the boldness OF THE Peter and the boldness OF THE John). 

The one genitive article (the will OF-THE God and Father of-us) in Galatians 1:4 does NOT mean that God and Father are one (the same) person. 

To the contrary, the one genitive article (OF-THE) means that the will is one thing (one will). It means that God and Father (one person [the Father], as determined by the context) has one will (the will OF THE God and Father). 

The one genitive article (the foundation OF-THE apostles and prophets) in Ephesians 2:20 does NOT mean that apostles and prophets are one (the same) group of persons. 

To the contrary, the one genitive article (OF-THE) means that the foundation is one thing (one foundation). It means that the apostles and prophets (two groups of persons, as determined by the context) have (are included in) one (the same) foundation (the foundation OF THE apostles and prophets). 

Two genitive articles (the foundation OF-THE apostles and OF-THE prophets) would mean that the apostles and the prophets (two groups of persons, as determined by the context) had (were included in) two different foundations (the foundation OF THE apostles and the foundation OF THE prophets). 

The rest of the genitive phrases in the New Testament function the same way that has been described above. 

It is contextually obvious in Ephesians 1:2 and 5:1-6 that the nouns Christ and God refer to two persons (Son and Father).

Ephesians 1:2 Grace to-you and peace from God Father of-us [the Father] and Lord Jesus Christ [the Son]. … 5:1 you-must-become, Therefore, imitators of-the God [the Father], as children loved [whose Father is God], 2 and you-must-walk in love, according-as also the Christ [the Son] he-gave-over himself [the Son] on-behalf of-us, offering and sacrifice, to-the God [the Father] … 5 … every fornicator or unclean-one or covetous-one … not he-has inheritance in the kingdom OF-THE Christ [the Son] and God [and Father]. 6 … because of-these-things, For, it-comes, the wrath of-the God [the Father], on the sons of-the obstinacy.

According to Paul’s genitive phrase “the kingdom OF-THE Christ [the Son] and God [and Father]” in Ephesians 5:5, the Son (Christ) will reign over the kingdom until he gives the kingdom to the Father (God), which is consistent with 1 Corinthians 15:24, where Paul says, “Afterward, the end, whenever he-would-give-over the kingdom to-the God and Father [the Father].” 

The one genitive article (the kingdom OF-THE Christ and God) in Ephesians 5:5 does NOT mean that Christ and God are one (the same) person. 

To the contrary, the one genitive article (OF-THE) means that the kingdom is one thing (one kingdom). It means that Christ and God (two persons [Son and Father], as determined by the context) have one (the same) kingdom (the kingdom OF THE Christ and God). 

Two genitive articles (the kingdom OF-THE Christ and OF-THE God) would mean that Christ and God (two persons [Son and Father], as determined by the context) had two different kingdoms (the kingdom OF THE Christ and the kingdom OF THE God).  

It is contextually obvious in 2 Thessalonians 1:2 and 1:12 that the nouns God and Lord refer to two persons (Father and Son). 

2 Thessalonians 1:2 Grace to-you and peace from God Father of-us [the Father] and Lord Jesus Christ [the Son]. … 12 so-as it-would-be-glorified, the name of-the Lord of-us Jesus [the Son], among you, and you in him [the Son], according-to the grace OF-THE God of-us [the Father] and Lord Jesus Christ [and Son]. 

The one genitive article (the grace OF-THE God of-us and Lord Jesus Christ) in 2 Thessalonians 1:12 does NOT mean that God and Lord are one (the same) person. 

To the contrary, the one genitive article (OF-THE) means that the grace is one thing (one grace). It means that God and Lord (two persons [Father and Son], as determined by the context) have one (the same) grace (the grace OF THE God and Lord). 

Two genitive articles (the grace OF-THE God of-us and OF-THE Lord Jesus Christ) would mean that God and Lord (two person [Father and Son], as determined by the context) had two different graces (the grace OF THE God and the grace OF THE Lord). 

It is contextually obvious in Titus 1:4 and 2:13 that the nouns God and Savior refer to two persons (Father and Son). 

Titus 1:4 To-Titus, true child, according-to common faith. Grace and peace from God Father [the Father] and Christ Jesus the Savior of-us [the Son]. … 2:13 expecting the blessed hope and appearance of-the glory OF-THE great God [the Father] and Savior of-us Jesus Christ [and Son]

The fact that the GLORY of the Father (God) and Son (Jesus Christ) will appear at the coming of the Lord is stated in Luke 9:26 and Titus 2:13. 

Luke 9:26 the-one-who, For, ever he-would-be-ashamed-of me [the Son] and the mine words, this-one the Son of-the man [the Son] he-will-be-ashamed-of whenever he-would-come in the GLORY of-him [the Son] and of-the Father [God] and of-the holy angels. 

Titus 2:13 expecting the blessed hope and appearance of-the GLORY of-the great God [the Father] and Savior of-us Jesus Christ [and Son]

In fact, the New Testament consistently states in Matthew 16:27, Mark 8:38, Luke 9:26 and Titus 2:13 that the GLORY of the Father (God) will appear at the coming of the Lord. 

Matthew 16:27 he-is-going, For, the Son of-the man [the Son], to-come in the GLORY of-the Father [God] of-him [the Son] with the angels of-him [the Son], and at-that-time he-will-give-back to-each-one according-to practice of-him. 

Mark 8:38 the-one-who, For, if-ever he-would-be-ashamed-of- me and the mine words in the generation this the adulterous and sinful, also the Son of-the man [the Son] he-will-be-ashamed-of him, whenever he-would-come in the GLORY of-the Father [God] of-him [the Son] with the angels the holy.   

Luke 9:26 the-one-who, For, ever he-would-be-ashamed-of me [the Son] and the mine words, this-one the Son of-the man [the Son] he-will-be-ashamed-of whenever he-would-come in the GLORY of-him [the Son] and of-the Father [God] and of-the holy angels. 

Titus 2:13 expecting the blessed hope and appearance of-the GLORY of-the great God [the Father] and Savior of-us Jesus Christ [and Son]

In Titus 2:13-14, as in Galatians 1:3-4, Paul refers to two persons (Father and Son), and he identifies the second person (the Son) as the one who gave himself for us.

Galatians 1:3 Grace to-you and peace from God Father of-us [the Father] and Lord Jesus Christ [the Son], 4 the-one having-given himself [the second person / the Son] on-behalf of-the sins of-us, so-as to-rescue us out-of the age of-the impending evil, according-to the will of-the God and Father of-us [the Father].  

Titus 2:13 expecting the blessed hope and appearance of-the GLORY of-the great God [the Father] and Savior of-us Jesus Christ [and Son], 14 who he-gave himself [the second person / the Son] on-behalf of-us, that he-would-redeem us from all lawlessness and he-would-cleanse for-himself [the Son] people possessed, zealot of excellent works.  

The one genitive article (the glory OF-THE great God and Savior of-us Jesus Christ) in Titus 2:13 does NOT mean that God and Savior are one (the same) person. 

To the contrary, the one genitive article (OF-THE) means that the glory is one thing (one glory). It means that God and Savior (two persons [Father and Son], as determined by the context) have one (the same) glory (the glory OF THE God and Savior). 

Two genitive articles (the glory OF-THE great God and OF-THE Savior of-us Jesus Christ) would mean that God and Savior (two person [Father and Son], as determined by the context) had two different glories (the glory OF THE God and the glory OF THE Savior). 

It is contextually obvious in 2 Peter 1:1-2 that the noun God refers to the Father (God) and that the nouns Savior and Lord refer to the Son (Jesus Christ). 

2 Peter 1:1 Simon Peter, servant and apostle of-Jesus Christ [the Son], to-the-ones, equally-precious to-us, having-obtained faith in righteousness OF-THE God of-us [the Father] and Savior Jesus Christ [and Son]. 2 Grace to-you and peace may-it-be-multiplied in knowledge OF-THE God [the Father] and Jesus the Lord of-us [and Son]. 

Everywhere else in the New Testament, whenever the righteousness of God is discussed, as in Romans 3:21-26 and 2 Corinthians 5:18-21, the noun God is always reference to the Father (God). There is no reason to doubt the fact that the same thing is true in 2 Peter 1:1. 

Everywhere else in the New Testament, whenever Christians are greeted with grace and peace, as in Romans 1:7, 1 Corinthians 1:3, 2 Corinthians 1:2, Galatians 1:3, Ephesians 1:2, Philippians 1:2, Colossians 1:2, 2 Thessalonians 1:2 and 1 Peter 1:2, the noun God is always a reference to the Father (God). There is no reason to doubt the fact that the same thing is true in 2 Peter 1:2.  

The one genitive article ([the] righteousness OF-THE God of-us and Savior Jesus Christ) in 2 Peter 1:1 does NOT mean that God and Savior are one (the same) person. 

To the contrary, the one genitive article (OF-THE) means that the righteousness is one thing (one righteousness). It means that God and Savior (two persons [Father and Son], as determined by the context) have one (the same) righteousness (the righteousness OF THE God and Savior). 

Two genitive articles ([the] righteousness OF-THE God of-us and OF-THE Savior Jesus Christ) would mean that God and Savior (two person [Father and Son], as determined by the context) had two different righteousnesses (the righteousness OF THE God and the righteousness OF THE Savior). 

The one genitive article ([the] knowledge OF-THE God and Jesus the Lord of-us) in 2 Peter 1:2 does NOT mean that God and Jesus are one (the same) person. 

To the contrary, the one genitive article (OF-THE) means that the knowledge is one thing (one knowledge). It means that God and Jesus (two persons [Father and Son], as determined by the context) have (are included in) one (the same) knowledge (the knowledge OF THE God and Jesus). 

Two genitive articles ([the] knowledge OF-THE God and OF-THE Jesus the Lord of-us) would mean that God and Jesus (two person [Father and Son], as determined by the context) had (were included in) two different knowledges (the knowledge OF THE God and the knowledge OF THE Jesus). 

It is contextually obvious in 2 Peter 1:1-2 and 11 that the noun God refers to the Father (God) and that the nouns Savior and Lord refer to the Son (Jesus Christ). 

2 Peter 1:1 Simon Peter, servant and apostle of-Jesus Christ [the Son], to-the-ones, equally-precious to-us, having-obtained faith in righteousness of-the GOD of-us [the Father] and SAVIOR Jesus Christ [and Son]. 2 Grace to-you and peace may-it-be-multiplied in knowledge of-the GOD [the Father] and Jesus the LORD of-us [and Son]. ... 11 in-this-manner, For, richly it-will-be-provided to-you, the entrance into the eternal kingdom OF-THE LORD of-us and SAVIOR Jesus Christ [the Son].

The one genitive article (the eternal kingdom OF-THE Lord of-us and Savior Jesus Christ) in 2 Peter 1:11 does NOT mean that Lord and Savior are one (the same) person. 

To the contrary, the one genitive article (OF-THE) means that the eternal kingdom is one thing (one eternal kingdom). It means that Lord and Savior (one person [the Son], as determined by the context) has one eternal kingdom (the eternal kingdom OF THE Lord and Savior). 

As shown above, whenever the noun God is one of the modifying genitive nouns in any genitive phrase in the New Testament, the noun God is always a reference to the Father (God), as determined by the context. 

Nevertheless, an 18th-century Trinity zealot named Granville Sharp (1735-1813) was unhappy with the above shown grammatical and contextual realities of the genitive phrases in the New Testament. 

Mr. Sharp wanted the noun God in the genitive phrases in Ephesians 5:5, 2 Thessalonians 1:12, Titus 2:13 and 2 Peter 1:1 to be a reference to the Son (Jesus Christ) instead of a reference to the Father (God) so that he could claim that those four genitive phrases were proof that Christ was God.

Therefore, Mr. Sharp contrived a reverse interpretation (the Granville Sharp rule) by which to force the noun God in the genitive phrases in Ephesians 5:5, 2 Thessalonians 1:12, Titus 2:13 and 2 Peter 1:1 to mean what he wanted it to mean (the Son) instead of what it actually meant (the Father).

In order to interpretively reverse the referent of the noun God from what it actually was (the Father) to what he wanted it to be (the Son), Mr. Sharp interpretively reversed the function of a genitive phrase from what it actually was (the one genitive article [OF-THE] meaning [actually] that the MODIFIED NOUN referred to one thing) to what he wanted it to be (the one genitive article [OF-THE] meaning [according to Mr. Sharp] that the MODIFYING GENITIVE NOUNS referred to one person [the Granville Sharp rule]).

The ONE genitive article in the genitive phrase in Ephesians 5:5 (the kingdom OF-THE Christ and God) means (actually) that Christ and God (two persons [Son and Father], as determined by the context) have ONE (the same) kingdom (the kingdom OF THE Christ and God).

But Mr. Sharp used his reverse interpretation (the Granville Sharp rule) to claim (incorrectly) that the ONE genitive article in the genitive phrase in Ephesians 5:5 meant (according to Mr. Sharp) that Christ and God were one (the same) person. 

The ONE genitive article in the genitive phrase in 2 Thessalonians 1:12 (the grace OF-THE God of-us and Lord Jesus Christ) means (actually) that God and Lord (two persons [Father and Son], as determined by the context) have ONE (the same) grace (the grace OF THE God and Lord).

But Mr. Sharp used his reverse interpretation (the Granville Sharp rule) to claim (incorrectly) that the ONE genitive article in the genitive phrase in 2 Thessalonians 1:12 meant (according to Mr. Sharp) that God and Lord were one (the same) person. 

The ONE genitive article in the genitive phrase in Titus 2:13 (the glory OF-THE great God and Savior of-us Jesus Christ) means (actually) that God and Savior (two persons [Father and Son], as determined by the context) have ONE (the same) glory (the glory OF THE God and Savior).

But Mr. Sharp used his reverse interpretation (the Granville Sharp rule) to claim (incorrectly) that the ONE genitive article in the genitive phrase in Titus 2:13 meant (according to Mr. Sharp) that God and Savior were one (the same) person. 

The ONE genitive article in the genitive phrase in 2 Peter 1:1 (righteousness OF-THE God of-us and Savior Jesus Christ) means (actually) that God and Savior (two persons [Father and Son], as determined by the context) have ONE (the same) righteousness (the righteousness OF THE God and Savior).

But Mr. Sharp used his reverse interpretation (the Granville Sharp rule) to claim (incorrectly) that the ONE genitive article in the genitive phrase in 2 Peter 1:1 meant (according to Mr. Sharp) that God and Savior were one (the same) person. 

Mr. Sharp conceded the fact that the genitive phrase in Acts 4:13 (the OF-THE Peter boldness and of-John [the boldness OF THE Peter and John]) meant (actually) that Peter and John (two persons, as determined by the context) had one (the same) boldness (the boldness OF THE Peter and John).

But instead of conceding the fact that the genitive phrase in Acts 4:13 was the refutation of his reverse interpretation (the Granville Sharp rule) that it actually was, Mr. Sharp arbitrarily declared the genitive phrase in Acts 4:13 to be a mere exception to his reverse interpretation (the Granville Sharp rule).

All false teachers arbitrarily declare the actual refutations of their teachings to be mere exceptions to their teachings in order to perpetuate their false teachings, and Mr. Sharp was no different than any other false teacher in that respect.

Mr. Sharp was a false teacher, and his reverse interpretation (the Granville Sharp rule) was and is a false teaching. 

Mr. Sharp presented himself as a heroic defender of the deity of Christ, but Mr. Sharp was not a hero with regard to the New Testament. He was a heretic, who interpretively (via the Granville Sharp rule) removed the Father (God) from the Gospel.

As described in John 3:16, 5:19 and 17:2-3 and 1 John 2:23-24, the Gospel is a collaboration of the Father (God) and Son (Jesus Christ) to save us. The Son (Jesus Christ) never does anything without the Father (God). 

In Ephesians 5:5, the kingdom that we inherit through faith in Christ is the kingdom of the Son and Father, NOT the kingdom of the Son only. 

Mr. Sharp’s interpretive (via the Granville Sharp rule) removal of the Father (God) from the kingdom that we inherit through faith in Christ is heresy. 

In 2 Thessalonians 1:12, the grace that we receive through faith in Christ is the grace of the Father and Son, NOT the grace of the Son only. 

Mr. Sharp’s interpretive (via the Granville Sharp rule) removal of the Father (God) from the grace that we receive through faith in Christ is heresy. 

In Titus 2:13, the glory that will appear at the coming of the Lord is the glory of the Father and Son, NOT the glory of the Son only. 

Mr. Sharp’s interpretive (via the Granville Sharp rule) removal of the Father (God) from the glory that will appear at the coming of the Lord is heresy. 

In 2 Peter 1:1, the righteousness that we receive through faith in Christ is the righteousness of the Father and Son, NOT the righteousness of the Son only. 

Mr. Sharp’s interpretive (via the Granville Sharp rule) removal of the Father (God) from the righteousness that we receive through faith in Christ is heresy.

Mr. Sharp’s work to abolish slavery in England was a good thing. 

But Mr. Sharp’s work to abolish the Father (God) in the Gospel was NOT a good thing. It was and is heresy. 

The deity of Christ is plainly stated in John 1:1-17. 

The acknowledgement of the fact that the noun God in the genitive phrases in Ephesians 5:5, 2 Thessalonians 1:12, Titus 2:13 and 2 Peter 1:1 is a reference to the Father (God) is NOT a denial of the deity of Christ. 

To the contrary, Mr. Sharp’s denial of the fact that the noun God in the genitive phrases in Ephesians 5:5, 2 Thessalonians 1:12, Titus 2:13 and 2 Peter 1:1 is a reference to the Father (God) is an interpretive removal of the Father (God) from the kingdom and from the grace and from the glory and from the righteousness, which is an interpretive removal of the Father (God) from the Gospel, which is heresy.